Environmental Science:
How the World Works and Your Place in It


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Issues & Investigations

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Study Guide

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  • 223 pages, perfect bound, consumable
  • Keyed to the Student Edition and includes page number [in brackets] to indicate where information is located
  • A variety of question styles appear, including fill-in-the-blank, student opinion, multiple choice, crosswords, matching and drawing (graphs, food webs, etc.)
  • Included on the Teacher Component disc as Word files

Below is an excerpt from Unit 5 of the Study Guide.

5.4 The Waterworks [401]
  1. The Romans used canals or ________________ to carry water from the mountains to the city.
  2. The settlement of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania was uphill from the spring which was the source of water. The first pump was powered by __________ and the pipes were made of __________________.
  3. Like other cities, Bethlehem had to search for a new supply of water when the spring _________________________. Today Bethlehemís water supply comes from ________ ______________________________________.
  4. Identify two major cities that obtain water from distant places.
    (1) _______________________________ (2) _______________________________
  5. What is the major source of water for your city? ________________________________
Have a Drink in New York City [401]
  1. The major source of drinking water for New York City is _________________________ ____________________________________________________________________.
  2. In the summer the reservoir is treated with __________________________ to kill (algae/bacteria).
  3. Scientists working for the water department include ____________ and _____________.
  4. Scientists analyze more than (100/1000) water samples each (month/year) from nearly (200/500) locations.

At the Waterworks [402]

  1. Water sold by both public and private water suppliers must meet criteria (standards) that are set by the ________.
  2. Water entering the water treatment plant contains ___________ and other small organisms.
  3. The purpose of primary disinfection is to ______________________________________ __________________________________________. The disinfectant usually added is _____________, but some cities use ________________.
  4. Instead of chlorine __________ is used for primary disinfection at the Greater Vancouver System in British Columbia. The one disadvantage is that it is ______________________. One advantage is that it kills (bacteria/protozoa/all microorganisms) it may be possible to avoid the expense of _________________. Another advantage is the use of ozone also reduces the formation of _________.
  5. Aluminum potassium sulfate or ________ or a mixture of iron II chloride and __________ __________ are added to cause the small particles to stick together. The clumps of particles are called _________.
  6. ________________________ may be added to raise the pH and reduce ____________.
  7. Orthophosphate forms a _____________________ on pipes to reduce ______________ and prevent ______________ of lead and copper.
  8. ___________________________ is added to remove chemicals that cause taste, odor, or color problems. The amount required increases during the _____________ months.
  9. ___________________________ may also be added to remove organic chemicals including THMs (trihalomethanes) that form when _____________ combines with organic chemicals.
  10. As water flows through the flocculation tank it must flow over and under a series of ___________. The purpose of these dividers is to (increase the dissolved oxygen level/increase the time allowed) for floc formation.
  11. As the water moves though the flocculation tank, the floc grows ____________ and heavier. Floc sinks to the bottom in the (flocculation/settling) tank.
  12. Any floc not removed in the settling tank is removed by the ___________________ filter. As the floc accumulates in the bed of sand, it _________ the flow of water.
  13. The graded sand filter is cleaned (with a high pressure water jet/ by reversing the flow of water) as the sand is stirred. This process is called a _________________.
  14. More backwashes are needed during the ____________ months because of the increased growth of _________.
  15. The wash water is pumped to a lagoon where the _________ settle out. The water may be ________________ and treated for drinking water or returned to a __________ or stream.
  16. Filtration of the treated water reduces the risk of disease caused by chlorine-resistant _________________________________________. If the waterworks does not have a graded sand filter, high levels of ___________ must be added to kill these organisms.
  17. Give the reason why these chemicals are added to the water that leaves the waterworks.
    chlorine: ______________________________________________________________
    sodium hydroxide: ______________________________________________________
    fluoride: ______________________________________________________________
  18. Ozone can be used for primary chlorination but not final chlorination. Explain why. ___________________________________________________________________
  19. Is fluoride added to the water supply in the city where you live? _______