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Below is an excerpt from Chapter 9 of the Study Guide.
|Chapter 9 Cell Division
Section 9.1 Organization of Genetic Material (259)
Section 9.2 The Cell Cycle (263)
- DNA is a _________________ of nucleotides.
- List distinguishing features of different types of DNA.
- The entire amount of DNA in a cell is its ____________.
- The quantity of DNA is measured in _________________, where each _____________ represents a __________ in the ladder-like molecule.
- In prokaryotes, DNA occurs as _______________________________.
- Prokaryotes often have numerous ____________________________________ called plasmids.
- Bacteria have no ______________________________, so the DNA is just contained within the cellís cytoplasm. It is, however, scrunched together into one area of the cell called the ______________.
- The DNA of eukaryotes forms ________________, consisting of DNA wrapped around many histones which are in turn grouped and bunched together into nucleosomes. This type of ________________ allows eukaryotic cells to _____________________________.
- On a separate sheet of paper, draw and color the five levels of DNA packing.
- Chromosomes come in different ___________ and __________ and have ___________ ______________________. Different species have different ______________ of chromosomes in their cells and chromosomes occur in ___________ in most cells.
- Somatic cells contain ________________________________ while gametes have ____ _______________________.
- Cells with _____________ chromosomes are called diploid (2n) cells; those with ___________ chromosomes are haploid (n).
- Human somatic cells are (haploid/diploid), but human gametes are (haploid/diploid).
- You were formed from _________________ and _____________. Each had _____ chromosomes. These two haploid gametes fused to form your ___________, containing _____ chromosomes, or ______________.
- If all the chromosomes in a cell are paired according to size, chromosome 1 from the sperm and chromosome 1 from the egg make a pair of ________________________________. Homologous chromosomes (do/do not) interact or come into physical contact with each other. They are the same ________ and __________ and have the same _____________________________, meaning they carry the same _________.
- The twenty-third chromosome is the _________________________, expressed as being either X or Y. Sex chromosomes determine your _____________. Males are ______ and females are _______.
- Each of your cells contains exact copies of the _____________________________ of chromosomes except for sperm or eggs, which contain only ______________________, none in pairs.
- Mitosis is ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________.
- When one _____________ cell divides to form two identical ____________ cells, the process is _____________.
- Meiosis is ____________________________________________________________ ____________________.
- ______________ occurs when a _____________ cell divides and forms ____________ cells.
- A cellís DNA controls ________________, determines how long a cell will __________ __________________ and sometimes even determines how long a cell _____________.
- The __________ of a cell is described by the cell cycle.
- Label the following I for Interphase, G1 for G1 stage, S for S stage and G2 for G2 stage.
|| final preparations are made for the cell to divide
|| made up of G1, S and G2 stages
|| cell is occupied with normal growth and function
|| the number of chromatids doubles
|| the cell constructs many protein microtubules which attach to proteins on chromosomes at the centromeres
|| the longest portion of the cell cycle
|| cell contains 92 chromatids
|| time for a cell to copy its DNA in preparation for cell division
|| cell is metabolically active
- Why does the number of chromatids double during S stage? ______________________ ____________________________________________________________________
- The DNA in eukaryotic cells is in ______________________________________ as opposed to the DNA __________ in bacteria. Each long DNA molecule winds up, pack and condenses to form a _________________.
- After the DNA is copied during the _________________ of _________________, each chromosome and its copy will be __________________________________ at the centromere.
- A _________________ and its attached ________________________ are called sister chromatids.
- If two chromatids are physically connected after the DNA is copied during interphase, they are ________________________. Each connected pair of sister chromatids will have a ____________________________ elsewhere in the nucleus, but they are not joined to that _____________. In a normal diploid somatic cell going through the cell cycle, homologous chromosomes are (always/never) connected. ______________________________ are very similar to each other, but not identical because each originally came from a different one of your parents. _______________________________ form through a copying process, so they are ____________ to each other as well as being _________________________________.
- The centromere is a ___________________________________________________ containing DNA and proteins to help the chromatids ______________________ and _____________________ during cell division.
- The centromeres and the very ends of chromosomes (do/do not) have genes for inheritance.
- Microtubules are __________________________________ similar to the microtubules that make up the 9+2 structures of cilia and flagella. Microtubules also aid in the ________________________________________ during both mitosis and meiosis.
- When the DNA is all _____________ and the necessary proteins have been __________, the cell is ready for ______________________.