Biology: Patterns and Processes of Life

 

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Below is an excerpt from Chapter 9 of the Study Guide.

Chapter 9 Cell Division

Section 9.1 Organization of Genetic Material (259)
  1. DNA is a _________________ of nucleotides.


  2. List distinguishing features of different types of DNA.
    a. __________________________________________________________________
    b. __________________________________________________________________
    c. __________________________________________________________________


  3. The entire amount of DNA in a cell is its ____________.


  4. The quantity of DNA is measured in _________________, where each _____________ represents a __________ in the ladder-like molecule.


  5. In prokaryotes, DNA occurs as _______________________________.


  6. Prokaryotes often have numerous ____________________________________ called plasmids.


  7. Bacteria have no ______________________________, so the DNA is just contained within the cellís cytoplasm. It is, however, scrunched together into one area of the cell called the ______________.


  8. The DNA of eukaryotes forms ________________, consisting of DNA wrapped around many histones which are in turn grouped and bunched together into nucleosomes. This type of ________________ allows eukaryotic cells to _____________________________.


  9. On a separate sheet of paper, draw and color the five levels of DNA packing.


  10. Chromosomes come in different ___________ and __________ and have ___________ ______________________. Different species have different ______________ of chromosomes in their cells and chromosomes occur in ___________ in most cells.


  11. Somatic cells contain ________________________________ while gametes have ____ _______________________.


  12. Cells with _____________ chromosomes are called diploid (2n) cells; those with ___________ chromosomes are haploid (n).


  13. Human somatic cells are (haploid/diploid), but human gametes are (haploid/diploid).


  14. You were formed from _________________ and _____________. Each had _____ chromosomes. These two haploid gametes fused to form your ___________, containing _____ chromosomes, or ______________.


  15. If all the chromosomes in a cell are paired according to size, chromosome 1 from the sperm and chromosome 1 from the egg make a pair of ________________________________. Homologous chromosomes (do/do not) interact or come into physical contact with each other. They are the same ________ and __________ and have the same _____________________________, meaning they carry the same _________.


  16. The twenty-third chromosome is the _________________________, expressed as being either X or Y. Sex chromosomes determine your _____________. Males are ______ and females are _______.


  17. Each of your cells contains exact copies of the _____________________________ of chromosomes except for sperm or eggs, which contain only ______________________, none in pairs.


  18. Mitosis is ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________.


  19. When one _____________ cell divides to form two identical ____________ cells, the process is _____________.


  20. Meiosis is ____________________________________________________________ ____________________.


  21. ______________ occurs when a _____________ cell divides and forms ____________ cells.


Section 9.2 The Cell Cycle (263)
  1. A cellís DNA controls ________________, determines how long a cell will __________ __________________ and sometimes even determines how long a cell _____________.


  2. The __________ of a cell is described by the cell cycle.


  3. Label the following I for Interphase, G1 for G1 stage, S for S stage and G2 for G2 stage.


___ final preparations are made for the cell to divide
___ made up of G1, S and G2 stages
___ cell is occupied with normal growth and function
___ the number of chromatids doubles
___ the cell constructs many protein microtubules which attach to proteins on chromosomes at the centromeres
___ the longest portion of the cell cycle
___ cell contains 92 chromatids
___ time for a cell to copy its DNA in preparation for cell division
___ cell is metabolically active
  1. Why does the number of chromatids double during S stage? ______________________ ____________________________________________________________________


  2. The DNA in eukaryotic cells is in ______________________________________ as opposed to the DNA __________ in bacteria. Each long DNA molecule winds up, pack and condenses to form a _________________.


  3. After the DNA is copied during the _________________ of _________________, each chromosome and its copy will be __________________________________ at the centromere.


  4. A _________________ and its attached ________________________ are called sister chromatids.


  5. If two chromatids are physically connected after the DNA is copied during interphase, they are ________________________. Each connected pair of sister chromatids will have a ____________________________ elsewhere in the nucleus, but they are not joined to that _____________. In a normal diploid somatic cell going through the cell cycle, homologous chromosomes are (always/never) connected. ______________________________ are very similar to each other, but not identical because each originally came from a different one of your parents. _______________________________ form through a copying process, so they are ____________ to each other as well as being _________________________________.


  6. The centromere is a ___________________________________________________ containing DNA and proteins to help the chromatids ______________________ and _____________________ during cell division.


  7. The centromeres and the very ends of chromosomes (do/do not) have genes for inheritance.


  8. Microtubules are __________________________________ similar to the microtubules that make up the 9+2 structures of cilia and flagella. Microtubules also aid in the ________________________________________ during both mitosis and meiosis.


  9. When the DNA is all _____________ and the necessary proteins have been __________, the cell is ready for ______________________.