Teacher's Manual Features
Below is a sample from Chapter 13 of the Teacher's Manual.
|Chapter 13 Animal Structure and Function
Essential Knowledge and Skills:
After studying Section 13.1, the student should know:
05. Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and how specialized cells, tissues, and organs develop. The student is expected to:
A. compare cells from different parts of plants and animals including roots, stems, leaves, epithelia, muscles, and bones to show specialization of structure and function
04. compare cells from different parts of plants including epithelia to show specialization of structure
05. compare cells from different parts of animals including epithelia to show specialization of structure
General Introductory Comments:
This chapter contains the basic vocabulary for the next six chapters. In order not to lose the interest of the students, keep in mind the big picture of patterns. Treat this chapter as an introduction to animal form and function. It is easy to want to teach this material as a vocabulary lesson and this is not a good idea. It would be helpful to get the ideas across by having a lot of examples available. In discussing animal tissues, do a chicken wing dissection. Create jewelry of chicken neck vertebrae separated by individual ribs. Do not get lost in the myriad of details presented in this chapter. Point out the patterns of hierarchy (from cell to tissue, to organ, to system, to whole organism), symmetry, orientation and morphology. Have students look at inanimate objects to determine the differences in symmetry. Better yet, have students bring in objects illustrating different symmetries. Focus on inquiry. You can also refer back to Section 6.3 The Rise of Multicellular Life and tie in the evolutionary significance of some of the basic patterns.
Suggested Labs (from the Biology: Patterns and Processes of Life Lab Manual)
13.1 Animal Tissues
Introduce and Reinforce:
Remember you are relating structure to function. Ask students to list characteristics a tissue should have to fulfill a certain function. For example, tissue lining the insides of intestines must have a particular shape to fulfill the function of absorption. Tissues such as skeletal muscle, since they need to move, need some part to move. Go back to the cell chapter (Chapter 7) and find out what a cell needs to move. Analogies would also be beneficial. What shape would muscle cells have to have? Have the students predict answers to the aforementioned questions. The chicken wing dissection suggested in the opening comments will validate the quality of their predictions and encourage student interest in animal tissues. You can enliven the introduction to anatomy and physiology by selecting various anatomy “quickies” at the Access Excellence site noted in the Resources list above.
Demonstrate and Illustrate:
Consider doing Lab 13.4 at this point. This lab illustrates the differences in tissue type but to engage students in a more active fashion you might consider challenging them to prepare their own wet lab slides using tissues from the Access Excellence anatomy “quickies.” Tell students to pretend it is 1870 and the Cell Theory has just been making scientific headlines. Encourage your students to make thin slices of the cartilage, muscle, bones, etc. listed above to look for variations in tissue structure. They can compare their homemade slides to the prepared slides suggested in the lab. Have a variety of stains available for them to utilize.
Refer to the various lion illustrations in your text (Figures 13.3-13.10). Compare and contrast the variety of tissues shown in these figures with those visible in microscope slides made by students or professionally prepared.
Before moving on to Section 13.2, look at the big patterns. The first big pattern is symmetry. Have students think of animals displaying radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry or no body symmetry. Focus on the relationship between bilateral symmetry and cephalization and the impact this structural trend has had on the evolution of the animal kingdom.
Summary: (available on Teacher’s Component CD-ROM)
13.1 Summary: Animal Tissues