Biology: Patterns and Processes of Life


Teacher's Manual Features

Student Edition

Lab Manual

Teacher's Manual

Textbook Exercises

Study Guide

Reader's Guide


PowerPoint Presentation

  • Perfect bound
  • Includes Answers to Textbook Exercises
  • Contains Mini Table of Cotnents and Objectives
  • Lists Essential Knowledge and Skills broken down by section
  • Teaching Strategies include General Themes, Resources, Suggested Labs and Teaching tips for each section
  • Also contains Summaries for each textbook section
  • Included on the Teacher Component disc as Word files

Below is a sample from Chapter 13 of the Teacher's Manual.

Chapter 13 Animal Structure and Function

13.1 Animal Tissues (375)
  • Define an animal.
  • Recognize the four basic tissue types found in animals.
  • Describe the structures and common functions of each type of animal tissue.
  • Describe the body symmetry patterns characteristic of animals.

Essential Knowledge and Skills:
After studying Section 13.1, the student should know:
05. Science concepts. The student knows how an organism grows and how specialized cells, tissues, and organs develop. The student is expected to:
A. compare cells from different parts of plants and animals including roots, stems, leaves, epithelia, muscles, and bones to show specialization of structure and function
 04. compare cells from different parts of plants including epithelia to show specialization of structure
 05. compare cells from different parts of animals including epithelia to show specialization of structure

Teaching Strategies:
General Themes:
  • Patterns relating structure to function in the Animal Kingdom
  • Embryology, Histology, Anatomy, Physiology, General Animal Morphology and Homeostasis


General Introductory Comments:
This chapter contains the basic vocabulary for the next six chapters. In order not to lose the interest of the students, keep in mind the big picture of patterns. Treat this chapter as an introduction to animal form and function. It is easy to want to teach this material as a vocabulary lesson and this is not a good idea. It would be helpful to get the ideas across by having a lot of examples available. In discussing animal tissues, do a chicken wing dissection. Create jewelry of chicken neck vertebrae separated by individual ribs. Do not get lost in the myriad of details presented in this chapter. Point out the patterns of hierarchy (from cell to tissue, to organ, to system, to whole organism), symmetry, orientation and morphology. Have students look at inanimate objects to determine the differences in symmetry. Better yet, have students bring in objects illustrating different symmetries. Focus on inquiry. You can also refer back to Section 6.3 The Rise of Multicellular Life and tie in the evolutionary significance of some of the basic patterns.

Suggested Labs (from the Biology: Patterns and Processes of Life Lab Manual)
  • 13.1 Dissecting an Amphibian—Frog Anatomy
  • 13.2 Dissecting a Perch—Fish Anatomy
  • 13.3 Simulating Kidney Filtration
  • 13.4 Animal Tissues

13.1 Animal Tissues
Introduce and Reinforce:
Remember you are relating structure to function. Ask students to list characteristics a tissue should have to fulfill a certain function. For example, tissue lining the insides of intestines must have a particular shape to fulfill the function of absorption. Tissues such as skeletal muscle, since they need to move, need some part to move. Go back to the cell chapter (Chapter 7) and find out what a cell needs to move. Analogies would also be beneficial. What shape would muscle cells have to have? Have the students predict answers to the aforementioned questions. The chicken wing dissection suggested in the opening comments will validate the quality of their predictions and encourage student interest in animal tissues. You can enliven the introduction to anatomy and physiology by selecting various anatomy “quickies” at the Access Excellence site noted in the Resources list above.

Demonstrate and Illustrate:
Consider doing Lab 13.4 at this point. This lab illustrates the differences in tissue type but to engage students in a more active fashion you might consider challenging them to prepare their own wet lab slides using tissues from the Access Excellence anatomy “quickies.” Tell students to pretend it is 1870 and the Cell Theory has just been making scientific headlines. Encourage your students to make thin slices of the cartilage, muscle, bones, etc. listed above to look for variations in tissue structure. They can compare their homemade slides to the prepared slides suggested in the lab. Have a variety of stains available for them to utilize.

Refer to the various lion illustrations in your text (Figures 13.3-13.10). Compare and contrast the variety of tissues shown in these figures with those visible in microscope slides made by students or professionally prepared.

Before moving on to Section 13.2, look at the big patterns. The first big pattern is symmetry. Have students think of animals displaying radial symmetry, bilateral symmetry or no body symmetry. Focus on the relationship between bilateral symmetry and cephalization and the impact this structural trend has had on the evolution of the animal kingdom.

Summary: (available on Teacher’s Component CD-ROM)
13.1 Summary: Animal Tissues
  • Animals are multicellular heterotrophs lacking cell walls. They ingest food and undergo embryonic development during which specialized tissues form.
  • Animals are likely descendents of a colonial protozoan of nearly a billion years ago, the oldest known fossils dating back 700 to 800 million years ago.
  • A group of similar cells performing the same function is a tissue.
  • Epithelial cells are tightly packed together and form the outer and inner surfaces of many body parts. They have a basement membrane of proteins that holds the cells together.
  • Epithelium may be simple or stratified and comes in cuboidal, squamous and columnar shapes. Some may be ciliated. Still others secrete mucus and form mucous membranes.
  • Connective tissues hold together and support other tissues. They are surrounded by extracellular matrix such as collagen, for strength, or elastin, for a stretchy quality.
  • Connective tissue types include loose connective tissues, such as adipose tissue, and fibrous connective tissues like tendons, ligaments and cartilage. Bone, composed of Haversian systems of osteoblasts and blood, within its liquid matrix, are two other connective tissues.
  • Muscle cells contract when stimulated by nerve signals as molecular bridges form between proteins within the cell.
  • Skeletal muscle, responsible for the conscious movement of the body, is sometimes called voluntary muscle. Smooth muscle is involuntary and lines organs, arteries and other body parts not under conscious control. Cardiac muscle makes up the walls of the vertebrate heart and contracts by itself.
  • Nervous tissue makes up the brain and nerves of animals. They carry signals between sensory structures, the brain and muscles. The brain processes and coordinates incoming and outgoing signals.
  • Body symmetry varies in animals. Some have no symmetry. Radial symmetry lies along a central axis. Bilateral animals have anterior and posterior ends and dorsal and ventral surfaces. They also have well-developed anterior brains and sensory receptors, a characteristic known as cephalization.